DINOSAURS ROCK®

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EDUCATIONAL STANDARDS

All three (3) of our programs can fit very easily into Core Curriculum Content Standards (5.1, 5.3, 5.4)

5.1 Science Practices

Understand Scientific Explanation:
All there (3) of our programs DINOSAURS ROCK, OCEANS ROCK, & GEMS ROCK fit into one or more categories below.

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Who, what, when, where, why, and how questions form the basis for young learners’ investigations during sensory explorations, experimentation, and focused inquiry.

5.1.P.A.1

Display curiosity about science objects, materials, activities, and longer-term investigations in progress.

4

Fundamental scientific concepts and principles and the links between them are more useful than discrete facts.

5.1.4.A.1

Demonstrate understanding of the interrelationships among fundamental concepts in the physical, life, and Earth systems sciences.

4

Connections developed between fundamental concepts are used to explain, interpret, build, and refine explanations, models, and theories.

5.1.4.A.2

Use outcomes of investigations to build and refine questions, models, and explanations.

4

Outcomes of investigations are used to build and refine questions, models, and explanations.

5.1.4.A.3

Use scientific facts, measurements, observations, and patterns in nature to build and critique scientific arguments.


Generate Scientific Evidence Through Active Investigations:
All there (3) of our programs DINOSAURS ROCK, OCEANS ROCK, & GEMS ROCK fit into one or more categories below.
Our fossil digs along with extracting and cleaning and identifying specimens in all 3 programs fit into the categories below.

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Observations and investigations form young learners’ understandings of science concepts.

5.1.P.B.1

Observe, question, predict, and investigate materials, objects, and phenomena (e.g., using simple tools to crack a nut and look inside) during indoor and outdoor classroom activities and during any longer-term investigations.

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Experiments and explorations provide opportunities for young learners to use science vocabulary and scientific terms.

5.1.P.B.2

Use basic science terms and topic-related science vocabulary.

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Experiments and explorations give young learners opportunities to use science tools and technology.

5.1.P.B.3

Identify and use basic tools and technology to extend exploration in conjunction with science investigations.

4

Building and refining models and explanations requires generation and evaluation of evidence.

5.1.4.B.1

Design and follow simple plans using systematic observations to explore questions and predictions.

4

Tools and technology are used to gather, analyze, and communicate results.

5.1.4.B.2

Measure, gather, evaluate, and share evidence using tools and technologies.

4

Evidence is used to construct and defend arguments.

5.1.4.B.3

Formulate explanations from evidence.



Reflect on Scientific Knowledge:
All there (3) of our programs DINOSAURS ROCK, OCEANS ROCK, & GEMS ROCK fit into one or more categories below.
Many schools have had students look up the specimens they found on our ID Charts located on our website and talk in front of the classroom explaining what they found.

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Interacting with peers and adults to share questions and explorations about the natural world builds young learners’ scientific knowledge.

5.1.P.C.1

Communicate with other children and adults to share observations, pursue questions, and make predictions and/or conclusions.

4

Scientific understanding changes over time as new evidence and updated arguments emerge.

5.1.4.C.1

Monitor and reflect on one’s own knowledge regarding how ideas change over time.

4

Revisions of predictions and explanations occur when new arguments emerge that account more completely for available evidence.

5.1.4.C.2

Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of learning new information.

4

Scientific knowledge is a particular kind of knowledge with its own sources, justifications, and uncertainties.

5.1.4.C.3

Present evidence to interpret and/or predict cause-and-effect outcomes of investigations.



Participate Productively in Science:
All there (3) of our programs DINOSAURS ROCK, OCEANS ROCK, & GEMS ROCK fit into one or more categories below.
Digging and working  in groups with our excavation blocks and fossil digs and then identifying, analyzing and communicating to others what they found fits into this category.

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Science practices include drawing or “writing” on observation clipboards, making rubbings, or charting the growth of plants.

5.1.P.D.1

Represent observations and work through drawing, recording data, and “writing.”

4

Science has unique norms for participation. These include adopting a critical stance, demonstrating a willingness to ask questions and seek help, and developing a sense of trust and skepticism.

5.1.4.D.1

Actively participate in discussions about student data, questions, and understandings.

4

In order to determine which arguments and explanations are most persuasive, communities of learners work collaboratively to pose, refine, and evaluate questions, investigations, models, and theories (e.g., scientific argumentation and representation).

5.1.4.D.2

Work collaboratively to pose, refine, and evaluate questions, investigations, models, and theories.

4

Instruments of measurement can be used to safely gather accurate information for making scientific comparisons of objects and events.

5.1.4.D.3

Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.

4

Organisms are treated humanely, responsibly, and ethically.

5.1.4.D.4

Handle and treat organisms humanely, responsibly, and ethically.

8

Science involves practicing productive social interactions with peers, such as partner talk, whole-group discussions, and small-group work.

5.1.8.D.1

Engage in multiple forms of discussion in order to process, make sense of, and learn from others’ ideas, observations, and experiences.



5.3 Life Science

Organization & Development:
DINOSAURS ROCK: Comparative bone structure between humans and dinosaurs - building up a 7-ft tall Allosaurus Leg as well as a 9-ft tall Mastodon Leg.

OCEANS ROCK: 
Observations and discussions form a basis for young learners’ understanding of the similarities and differences among living and nonliving things.

GEMS ROCK: Nutrients and Minerals we get from our natural resources and how it can affect the human body.


Matter and Energy Transformations:
DINOSAURS ROCK: 
Observe and describe how plants and animals obtain food from their environment, such as by observing the interactions between organisms in a natural habitat.
Analyze the components of a consumer’s diet and trace them back to plants and plant products.
Illustrate the flow of energy (food) through a community.

OCEANS ROCK: Identify sources of energy (food) in a variety of settings (farm, zoo, ocean, forest).
Illustrate the flow of energy (food) through a community.

GEMS ROCK:  Matter and Energy Transformations: Food is required for energy and building cellular materials. Organisms in an ecosystem have different ways of obtaining food, and some organisms obtain their food directly from other organisms. 
Describe the requirements for the care of plants and animals related to meeting their energy needs.  We take this a step further educating your students that Plants are the only thing out there that have the ability to take the "minerals" from the soil and rock and put them into a form that the human body and use to keep healthy.


Interdepence:
All there (3) of our programs DINOSAURS ROCK, OCEANS ROCK, & GEMS ROCK fit into one or more categories below.

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Investigations and observations of the interactions between plants and animals form a basis for young learners’ understanding of interdependence in life science.

5.3.P.C.1

Observe and describe how natural habitats provide for the basic needs of plants and animals with respect to shelter, food, water, air, and light (e.g., dig outside in the soil to investigate the kinds of animal life that live in and around the ground).

2

Organisms interact and are interdependent in various ways; for example, they provide food and shelter to one another.

5.3.2.C.1

Describe the ways in which organisms interact with each other and their habitats in order to meet basic needs.

2

A habitat supports the growth of many different plants and animals by meeting their basic needs of food, water, and shelter.

5.3.2.C.2

Identify the characteristics of a habitat that enable the habitat to support the growth of many different plants and animals.

2

Humans can change natural habitats in ways that can be helpful or harmful for the plants and animals that live there.

5.3.2.C.3

Communicate ways that humans protect habitats and/or improve conditions for the growth of the plants and animals that live there, or ways that humans might harm habitats.

4

Organisms can only survive in environments in which their needs are met. Within ecosystems, organisms interact with and are dependent on their physical and living environment.

5.3.4.C.1

Predict the biotic and abiotic characteristics of an unfamiliar organism’s habitat.

4

Some changes in ecosystems occur slowly, while others occur rapidly. Changes can affect life forms, including humans.

5.3.4.C.2

Explain the consequences of rapid ecosystem change (e.g., flooding, wind storms, snowfall, volcanic eruptions), and compare them to consequences of gradual ecosystem change (e.g., gradual increase or decrease in daily temperatures, change in yearly rainfall).




Heredity and Reproduction:

DINOSAURS ROCK & OCEANS ROCK - cover over 1-Billion years of history in less than 1-hr. and include many of the topics listed below.
GEMS ROCK:  The development of Plants into useable energy COAL is discussed in detail.  Rocks have life-cycles as well transforming from igneous to sedimentary to metamorphic.


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Observations of developmental changes in a plant or animal over time form a basis for young learners’ understanding of heredity and reproduction.

5.3.P.D.1

Observe and record change over time and cycles of change that affect living things (e.g., use baby photographs to discuss human change and growth, observe and photograph tree growth and leaf changes throughout the year, monitor the life cycle of a plant).

2

Plants and animals often resemble their parents.

5.3.2.D.1

Record the observable characteristics of plants and animals to determine the similarities and differences between parents and their offspring.

2

Organisms have predictable characteristics at different stages of development.

5.3.2.D.2

Determine the characteristic changes that occur during the life cycle of plants and animals by examining a variety of species, and distinguish between growth and development.

4

Plants and animals have life cycles (they begin life, develop into adults, reproduce, and eventually die). The characteristics of each stage of life vary by species.

5.3.4.D.1

Compare the physical characteristics of the different stages of the life cycle of an individual organism, and compare the characteristics of life stages among species.




Evolution and Diversity:


All three of our programs DINOSAURS ROCK, OCEANS ROCK AND GEMS ROCK FIT INTO SEVERAL OF THE CATEGORIES BELOW.


2

Variations exist within a group of the same kind of organism.

5.3.2.E.1

Describe similarities and differences in observable traits between parents and offspring.

2

Plants and animals have features that help them survive in different environments.

5.3.2.E.2

Describe how similar structures found in different organisms (e.g., eyes, ears, mouths) have similar functions and enable those organisms to survive in different environments.

4

Individuals of the same species may differ in their characteristics, and sometimes these differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing in different environments.

5.3.4.E.1

Model an adaptation to a species that would increase its chances of survival, should the environment become wetter, dryer, warmer, or colder over time.

4

In any ecosystem, some populations of organisms thrive and grow, some decline, and others do not survive at all.

5.3.4.E.2

Evaluate similar populations in an ecosystem with regard to their ability to thrive and grow.

6

Changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individual organisms and entire species.

5.3.6.E.1

Describe the impact on the survival of species during specific times in geologic history when environmental conditions changed.

8

Individual organisms with certain traits are more likely than others to survive and have offspring in particular environments. The advantages or disadvantages of specific characteristics can change when the environment in which they exist changes. Extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and the characteristics of a species are insufficient to allow survival.

5.3.8.E.1

Organize and present evidence to show how the extinction of a species is related to an inability to adapt to changing environmental conditions using quantitative and qualitative data.

8

Anatomical evidence supports evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence of branching of various lines of descent.

5.3.8.E.2

Compare the anatomical structures of a living species with fossil records to derive a line of descent.

12

New traits may result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in reproductive cells within a population.

5.3.12.E.1

Account for the appearance of a novel trait that arose in a given population.

12

Molecular evidence (e.g., DNA, protein structures, etc.) substantiates the anatomical evidence for evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched.

5.3.12.E.2

Estimate how closely related species are, based on scientific evidence (e.g., anatomical similarities, similarities of DNA base and/or amino acid sequence).

12

The principles of evolution (including natural selection and common descent) provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth as evidenced in the fossil record and in the similarities that exist within the diversity of existing organisms.

5.3.12.E.3

Provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth using scientific evidence (e.g., fossil record, DNA, protein structures, etc.).






5.4 Earth System Science

History of Earth
All three of our programs DINOSAURS ROCK, OCEANS ROCK AND GEMS ROCK FIT INTO SEVERAL OF THE CATEGORIES BELOW.



4

Fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago, including whether they lived on the land or in the sea as well as ways species changed over time.

5.4.4.B.1

Use data gathered from observations of fossils to argue whether a given fossil is terrestrial or marine in origin.

6

Successive layers of sedimentary rock and the fossils contained in them tell the factual story of the age, history, changing life forms, and geology of Earth.

5.4.6.B.1

Interpret a representation of a rock layer sequence to establish oldest and youngest layers, geologic events, and changing life forms.

6

Earth’s current structure has been influenced by both sporadic and gradual events. Changes caused by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can be observed on a human time scale, but many geological processes, such as mountain building and the shifting of continents, are observed on a geologic time scale.

5.4.6.B.2

Examine Earth’s surface features and identify those created on a scale of human life or on a geologic time scale.

6

Moving water, wind, and ice continually shape Earth’s surface by eroding rock and soil in some areas and depositing them in other areas.

5.4.6.B.3

Determine if landforms were created by processes of erosion (e.g., wind, water, and/or ice) based on evidence in pictures, video, and/or maps.

6

Erosion plays an important role in the formation of soil, but too much erosion can wash away fertile soil from ecosystems, including farms.

5.4.6.B.4

Describe methods people use to reduce soil erosion.

8

Today’s planet is very different than early Earth. Evidence for one-celled forms of life (bacteria) extends back more than 3.5 billion years.

5.4.8.B.1

Correlate the evolution of organisms and the environmental conditions on Earth as they changed throughout geologic time.

8

Fossils provide evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed. The principle of Uniformitarianism makes possible the interpretation of Earth’s history. The same Earth processes that occurred in the past occur today.

5.4.8.B.2

Evaluate the appropriateness of increasing the human population in a region (e.g., barrier islands, Pacific Northwest, Midwest United States) based on the region’s history of catastrophic events, such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and floods.

12

The evolution of life caused dramatic changes in the composition of Earth’s atmosphere, which did not originally contain oxygen gas.

5.4.12.B.1

Trace the evolution of our atmosphere and relate the changes in rock types and life forms to the evolving atmosphere.

12

Relative dating uses index fossils and stratigraphic sequences to determine the sequence of geologic events.

5.4.12.B.2

Correlate stratigraphic columns from various locations by using index fossils and other dating techniques.

12

Absolute dating, using radioactive isotopes in rocks, makes it possible to determine how many years ago a given rock sample formed.

5.4.12.B.3

Account for the evolution of species by citing specific absolute-dating evidence of fossil samples.



Properties of Earth Materials:
All three of our programs DINOSAURS ROCK, OCEANS ROCK AND GEMS ROCK FIT INTO SEVERAL OF THE CATEGORIES BELOW.

fe on Earth.

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Observations and investigations form a basis for young learners’ understanding of properties of Earth materials.

5.4.P.C.1

Explore and describe characteristics of and concepts about soil, rocks, water, and air.

2

Soils are made of many living and nonliving substances. The attributes and properties of soil (e.g., moisture, kind and size of particles, living/organic elements, etc.) vary depending on location.

5.4.2.C.1

Describe Earth materials using appropriate terms, such as hard, soft, dry, wet, heavy, and light.

4

Rocks can be broken down to make soil.

5.4.4.C.1

Create a model to represent how soil is formed.

4

Earth materials in nature include rocks, minerals, soils, water, and the gases of the atmosphere. Attributes of rocks and minerals assist in their identification.

5.4.4.C.2

Categorize unknown samples as either rocks or minerals.

6

Soil attributes/properties affect the soil’s ability to support animal life and grow plants.

5.4.6.C.1

Predict the types of ecosystems that unknown soil samples could support based on soil properties.

6

The rock cycle is a model of creation and transformation of rocks from one form (sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic) to another. Rock families are determined by the origin and transformations of the rock.

5.4.6.C.2

Distinguish physical properties of sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic rocks and explain how one kind of rock could eventually become a different kind of rock.

6

Rocks and rock formations contain evidence that tell a story about their past. The story is dependent on the minerals, materials, tectonic conditions, and erosion forces that created them.

5.4.6.C.3

Deduce the story of the tectonic conditions and erosion forces that created sample rocks or rock formations.

8

Soil consists of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material from dead plants, animals, and bacteria. Soils are often found in layers, each having a different chemical composition and texture.

5.4.8.C.1

Determine the chemical properties of soil samples in order to select an appropriate location for a community garden.

8

Physical and chemical changes take place in Earth materials when Earth features are modified through weathering and erosion.

5.4.8.C.2

Explain how chemical and physical mechanisms (changes) are responsible for creating a variety of landforms.

8

Earth’s atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases that include water vapor. The atmosphere has a different physical and chemical composition at different elevations.

5.4.8.C.3

Model the vertical structure of the atmosphere using information from active and passive remote-sensing tools (e.g., satellites, balloons, and/or ground-based sensors) in the analysis.

12
Soils are at the interface of the Earth systems, linking together the biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere.
5.4.12.C.1
Model the interrelationships among the spheres in the Earth systems by creating a flow chart.
12
The chemical and physical properties of the vertical structure of the atmosphere support li
5.4.12.C.2
Analyze the vertical structure of Earth’s atmosphere, and account for the global, regional, and l
ocal variations of these characteristics and their impact on life.
rocks shows that Earth’s magnetic field reverses (North – South) over geologic time.

Tectonics:
All three of our programs DINOSAURS ROCK, OCEANS ROCK AND GEMS ROCK FIT INTO SEVERAL OF THE CATEGORIES BELOW.

6
Lithospheric plates consisting of continents and ocean floors move in response to movements in the mantle.
5.4.6.D.1
Apply understanding of the motion of lithospheric plates to explain why the Pacific Rim is referred to as the Ring of Fire.
6
Earth’s landforms are created through constructive (deposition) and destructive (erosion) processes.
5.4.6.D.2

Locate areas that are being created (deposition) and destroyed (erosion) using maps and satellite images.

6
Earth has a magnetic field that is detectable at the surface with a compass.
5.4.6.D.3

Apply knowledge of Earth’s magnetic fields to successfully complete an orienteering challenge.

8
Earth is layered with a lithosphere, a hot, convecting mantle, and a dense, metallic core.
5.4.8.D.1
Model the interactions between the layers of Earth.
8
Major geological events, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building, result from the motion of plates. Sea floor spreading, revealed in mapping of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and subduction zones are evidence for the theory of plate tectonics.

5.4.8.D.2

Present evidence to support arguments for the theory of plate motion.
8

Earth’s magnetic field has north and south poles and lines of force that are used for navigation.

5.4.8.D.3
Explain why geomagnetic north and geographic north are at different locations.

12
Convection currents in the upper mantle drive plate motion. Plates are pushed apart at spreading zones and pulled down into the crust at subduction zones.
5.4.12.D.1
Explain the mechanisms for plate motions using earthquake data, mathematics, and conceptual models.
12
Evidence from lava flows and ocean-floor
sources of energy, both of which create heat.
5.4.12.D.2
Calculate the average rate of seafloor spreading using archived geomagnetic-reversals data.



Energy in Earth Systems:

This is covered in our OCEANS ROCK Program.

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Observations and investigations form the basis for young learners’ understanding of energy in Earth systems.
5.4.P.E.1
Explore the effects of sunlight on living and nonliving things.
2
Plants need sunlight to grow.
5.4.2.E.1
Describe the relationship between the Sun and plant growth.
4
Land, air, and water absorb the Sun’s energy at different rates.
5.4.4.E.1
Develop a general set of rules to predict temperature changes of Earth materials, such as water, soil, and sand, when placed in the Sun and in the shade.
6
The Sun is the major source of energy for circulating the atmosphere and oceans.
5.4.6.E.1
Generate a conclusion about energy transfer and circulation by observing a model of convection currents.
8
The Sun provides energy for plants to grow and drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle.
5.4.8.E.1
Explain how energy from the Sun is transformed or transferred in global wind circulation, ocean circulation, and the water cycle.

12

The Sun is the major external source of energy for Earth’s global energy budget.
5.4.12.E.1

Model and explain the physical science principles that account for the global energy budget.

12
Earth systems have internal and external

5.4.12.E.2
Predict what the impact on biogeochemical systems would be if there were
an increase or decrease in internal and external energy.
he atmosphere.


Climate & Weather:
All three of our programs DINOSAURS ROCK, OCEANS ROCK AND GEMS ROCK FIT INTO SEVERAL OF THE CATEGORIES BELOW.
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Observations and investigations form the basis for young learners’ understanding of weather and climate.
5.4.P.F.1
Observe and record weather.
2
Current weather conditions include air movement, clouds, and precipitation. Weather conditions affect our daily lives.
5.4.2.F.1
Observe and document daily weather conditions and discuss how the weather influences your activities for the day.

4
Weather changes that occur from day to day and across the seasons can be measured and documented using basic instruments such as a thermometer, wind vane, anemometer, and rain gauge.

5.4.4.F.1
Identify patterns in data collected from basic weather instruments.
6
Weather is the result of short-term variations in temperature, humidity, and air pressure.

5.4.6.F.1

Explain the interrelationships between daily temperature, air pressure, and relative humidity data.

6
Climate is the result of long-term patterns of temperature and precipitation.

5.4.6.F.2
Create climatographs for various locations around Earth and categorize the climate based on the yearly patterns of temperature and precipitation.
8
Global patterns of atmospheric movement influence local weather.
5.4.8.F.1
Determine the origin of local weather by exploring national and international weather maps.
8
Climate is influenced locally and globally by atmospheric interactions with land masses and bodies of water.
5.4.8.F.2
Explain the mechanisms that cause varying daily temperature ranges in a coastal community and in a community located in the interior of the country.
8
Weather (in the short term) and climate (in the long term) involve the transfer of energy and water in and out of t
5.4.8.F.3
Create a model of the hydrologic cycle that focuses on the transfer of water in and out of the atmosphere. Apply the model to different climates around the world.
erefore significantly affects the global climate system.


Biogeochemical Cycles:
All three of our programs DINOSAURS ROCK, OCEANS ROCK AND GEMS ROCK FIT INTO SEVERAL OF THE CATEGORIES BELOW.
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Investigations in environmental awareness activities form a basis for young learners’ understanding of biogeochemical changes.
5.4.P.G.1
Demonstrate emergent awareness for conservation, recycling, and respect for the environment (e.g., turning off water faucets, using paper from a classroom scrap box when whole sheets are not needed, keeping the playground neat and clean).
2
Water can disappear (evaporate) and collect (condense) on surfaces.
5.4.2.G.1
Observe and discuss evaporation and condensation.

2
There are many sources and uses of water.

5.4.2.G.2
Identify and use water conservation practices.

2
Organisms have basic needs and they meet those needs within their environment.
5.4.2.G.3
Identify and categorize the basic needs of living organisms as they relate to the environment.
2
The origin of everyday manufactured products such as paper and cans can be traced back to natural resources.
5.4.2.G.4

Identify the natural resources used in the process of making various manufactured products.

4
Clouds and fog are made of tiny droplets of water and, at times, tiny particles of ice.

5.4.4.G.1
Explain how clouds form.
4
Rain, snow, and other forms of precipitation come from clouds; not all clouds produce precipitation.
5.4.4.G.2
Observe daily cloud patterns, types of precipitation, and temperature, and categorize the clouds by the conditions that form precipitation.
4
Most of Earth’s surface is covered by water. Water circulates through the crust, oceans, and atmosphere in what is known as the water cycle.
5.4.4.G.3

Trace a path a drop of water might follow through the water cycle.

4
Properties of water depend on where the water is located (oceans, rivers, lakes, underground sources, and glaciers).

5.4.4.G.4
Model how the properties of water can change as water moves through the water cycle.
6
Circulation of water in marine environments is dependent on factors such as the composition of water masses and energy from the Sun or wind.
5.4.6.G.1
Illustrate global winds and surface currents through the creation of a world map of global winds and currents that explains the relationship between the two factors.

6
An ecosystem includes all of the plant and animal populations and nonliving resources in a given area. Organisms interact with each other and with other components of an ecosystem.

5.4.6.G.2

Create a model of ecosystems in two different locations, and compare and contrast the living and nonliving components.

6
Personal activities impact the local and global environment.
5.4.6.G.3
Describe ways that humans can improve the health of ecosystems around the world.

8
Water in the oceans holds a large amount of heat, and th
5.4.8.G.1
Represent and explain, using sea surface temperature maps, how ocean currents impact the climate of coastal communities.

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